The Revelation of Jesus Christ Pt 8, 2:12-17

JESUS’ LETTER TO THE CHURCH AT PERGAMOS

Pergamos, or Pergamum, is the third epistle that Jesus writes. This letter exhorts and warns us not to mix with the world. We are admonished to have good, solid doctrine, which originates from The Bible, not the world or worldly sects.

Before reviewing this letter, look here for a brief summary on the seven letters in general.

  1. Exposition
  2. Parable
  3. Cultural Relevance
  4. Prophetic
  5. Accompanying Epistle(s)
EXPOSITION

VERSE 12

"And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; these things saith He which hath the sharp rhomphaia with two edges"
  1. TITLE OF THE CHURCH

The name Pergamos/Pergamum means “elevated/perverted/mixed marriage,” which hints at the problem in this church: bad doctrine. The church was beginning to incorporate worldly doctrines into their congregations.

We are not to be mixed with the world. We should aim to keep ourselves pure. As Paul says, a “chaste virgin to Christ.”

We are not only brides-to-be of Jesus, but soldiers. And we are admonished to remain separate, unmixed, in that role as well so that “please Him who hath enlisted him to be a soldier.”

As the bride of Christ (and soliders), we should aim to be pure, unmixed, holding to good doctrine, as we shall see. Remember, “a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump” and “love not the world, neither the things that are in the world…” There are many verses which admonish us to remain set apart and pure. Here are three:

"Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God." [2 Cor 7:1]

"...and all such as had separated themselves unto them from the filthiness of the heathen of the land, to seek The LORD God of Israel, did eat, and kept the feast of unleavened bread seven days with joy..." [Ezra 6:21-22]

"...Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us: therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth." [1 Cor 6:6-8]
  1. TITLE(S) OF JESUS CHRIST
  • He which hath the sharp rhomphaia with two edges
    • The Lord Jesus wields the two-edged rhomphaia, which pierces through our hearts and judges the world. Jesus’ word judges between what is good and what is bad and it is advisable that we be on the correct side. Jesus’ sword will judge the world one day, and we do not want to be alongside them. We want to be on Jesus’ side.
      • It is interesting and relevant that The LORD, after telling the Israelites not to follow the heathen around them, that He says,
        • “What thing soever I command you, observe to do it: thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it.” [Deut 12:32]
      • The LORD directly connects following His doctrine as it stands with following after/doing according to the surrounding world. When we don’t take God’s doctrines/scriptures seriously, we fall into trouble and can go astray with the world.

VERSE 13

"I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan's throne is: and thou continue to seize hold of My Name, and hast not refused to identify with My faith, even in the days Antipas, the witness of me, the faithful one of me, who was slain in the presence of you, where Satan dwelleth."
  1. COMMENDATIONS
  • I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan’s throne is: and thou continue to seize hold of My Name
    • Satan’s throne may refer to the temple of Aesclepius or the “pergamon altar,” which was for Zeus. Regardless, we know that Satan’s presence upon earth is not omnipresent. It is said of Satan that he is “as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour” and from a conversation with The LORD, that he is “going to and fro in the earth” and, “walking up and down in it.” [Job 1:6-7] It would seem therefore, that at the time Jesus is writing, Pergamos was the place where Satan’s “headquarters” were. And this makes sense, as the city was highly involved with idolatry, and those idols, to which the Gentiles sacrificed, are in reality “demons.”
    • Even though Pergamos is surrounded by idolatry, demons, and evil, they continue to hold fast to Jesus’ name. They are seizing hold of His name. This is exactly what we must do as well. As the world continues to grow worse and worse, as Jesus has warned us, we must seize upon Jesus more and more fervently. Jesus is our only hope and we must cling to His name. Remember the words of Paul, who said,
      • “Yea, and all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution. But evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving, and being deceived. But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing of whom thou hast learned them; And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. All scripture is God-breathed, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.” [2 Tim 3:12-17]
  • And hast not refused to identify with My faith, even in the days Antipas, the witness of me, the faithful one of me, who was slain in the presence of you, where Satan dwelleth
    • Even in the face of death, literally seeing their brother being killed in front of them, they did not deny Jesus. To deny means to refuse identity with someone or something. Like Peter denied Jesus in front of the fire, saying, “I know not this man of whom ye speak.” And so it is a good thing that they, unmoved by threat of death, affirm their faith in Jesus. Jesus told us that we must confess Him and that we shouldn’t fear death for that is the worse that men can do.
      • “And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear Him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? And one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father. But the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Fear ye not therefore, ye are of more value than many sparrows. Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before My Father which is in heaven. But whosoever shall deny Me before men, him will I also deny before My Father which is in heaven.” [Mt 10:28-33]

VERSE 14-15

"But I have a few things against thee, because thou hast there them that are holding fast to the doctrine of Balaam, who had been teaching Balac to cast a stumblingblock before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit fornication. So hast thou also them that are holding fast to the doctrine of the Nicolaitanes, which thing I hate."
  1. CONDEMNATIONS
  • Thou hast there them that are holding fast to the doctrine of Balaam, who had been teaching Balac to cast a stumblingblock before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit fornication
    • The story of Balaam is told to us in Numbers 22-25. The doctrine which Balaam gave to Balak is found in Numbers 31:16, which says, “Behold, these [Midian women] caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam, to commit trespass against The LORD in the matter of Peor, and there was a plague among the congregation of The LORD.”
      • To summarize, Balaam attempted to use his God-given gift of prophecy for gain by cursing Israel for Balak. The LORD told him no but he insisted. The LORD suffered him to go but did not allow Balaam to curse Israel. Instead The LORD changed the attempted curse into a blessing. Afterward, when Balaam could not acquire wealth and honor from cursing, gives Balak another option: to destroy the Israelites by sending in Midianite women to seduce them. A short passage from Numbers 25 shows us that this caused Israel to fall away from God:
        • “And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab. And they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods: and the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods. And Israel joined himself unto Baalpeor: and the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel.” [Num 25:1-3]
    • Eating things sacrificed to idols is akin to engaging in spiritual fornication. It is representative of becoming intimate with a false god, with a demon even. Paul relates this to us in 1 Corinthians 10,
      • “Behold Israel after the flesh: are not they which eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar? What say I then? That the idol is anything, or that which is offered in sacrifice to idols is anything? But I say, that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons, and not to God: and I would not that ye should have fellowship with demons. Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of demons: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord’s table, and of the table of demons.” [1 Cor 10:18-21]
    • This part of Balaam’s doctrine, eating things sacrificed to idols, came about through fornication. Specifically in relation to Israel – whoredom with Midianite women. This act destroys both the body and the soul.
      • “Flee fornication. Every sin that a man does is without the body; but he that committeth fornication sinneth again his own body.” [1 Cor 6:18]
      • “But whoso committeth adultery with a woman lacketh understanding: he that doeth it destroyeth his own soul.” [Prov 6:32]
    • We, as Christians, are to remain pure sexually.
      • “For this is the will of God, even your sanctification, that ye should abstain from fornication: that every one of you should know how to possess his vessel in sanctification and honor; not in the passion of lust, even as the Gentiles which know not God.” [1 Thess 4:3-5]
    • So in Pergamos, there were some that held to this doctrine. They thought it was okay to fornicate and flirt with other gods as it were. We have to be extremely careful who and what we are intimate with, both physically and spiritually. We are to partake of The Lord’s table alone, and we are to keep all sexual activity with one person in the context of marriage. The world will try to get us to compromise, but we are not to hold to this doctrine: it is the doctrine of Balaam.
  • So hast thou also them that are holding fast to the doctrine of the Nicolaitanes, which thing I hate
    • The church at Pergamos had another bad doctrine, the doctrine of the Nicolaitanes. We spoke of this with the Ephesian church. The Pergamos believers engaged in doctrines which employed hierarchies within the church, in a form of government which there is gross separation between leaders and non-leaders in the church.
    • Jesus hates this! We are all equal under Jesus Christ.

VERSE 16

"Repent; or else I will come unto thee in quickness, and will make war against them with the rhomphaia of My mouth."
  1. EXHORTATIONS
  • Repent; or else I will come unto thee in quickness, and will make war against them with the rhomphaia of My mouth
    • Jesus’ doctrine is pure and uncorrupt: perfect. We cannot willingly allow bad doctrine to permeate our lives or congregations. The action is to repent. Holding fast to false doctrine knowingly is sin and requires repentance. We are to study and interpret correctly as well.
      • “Young men likewise exhort to be sober minded. In all things shewing thyself a pattern of good works: in doctrine shewing incorruptibility, seriousness, integrity, healthy/pure/sound speech, not open to just rebuke; that he that is of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say of you.” [Tit 2:6-8]
      • “Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.” [2 Tim 2:15]

VERSE 17

"He that hath an ear, let him hear what The Spirit saith unto the churches; to him that is overcoming will I give to eat of the manna having been laid up/hidden, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name having been written, which no man has perceived saving he that is laying hold of it."
  1. ADMONITION
  • He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches
    • Repeated in each letter. An admonition for the reader of the letter, member of the particular church or not, to hear.
  1. PROMISE

Note: those who are overcomers/overcoming are defined in 1 John: “For whatsoever is born of God overcometh the world: and this is the victory that overcometh the world, even our faith. Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God?” [1 Jn 5:4-5]

  • will I give to eat of the manna having been laid up/hidden
    • The hidden manna is speaking of the manna which The LORD instructed Moses to keep for generations to come. This is told to us in Exodus,
      • “And Moses said, this is the thing which The LORD commandeth, fill an omer of it to be kept for your generations; that they may see the bread wherewith I have fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt. And Moses said to Aaron, take a pot, and put an omer full of manna therein, and lay it up before The LORD, to be kept for your generations. As The LORD commanded Moses, so Aaron laid it up before the Testimony, to be kept.” [Ex 16:32-34]
    • The writer of Hebrews tells us as well, that this pot full of manna was within the Holy of Holies, adding that the pot was made from gold.
      • “And after the second veil, the tabernacle which is called the Holiest of all; which had the golden censer, and the ark of the covenant overlaid round about with gold, wherein was the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron’s rod that budded, and the tables of the covenant.” [Heb 9:3-4]
    • The manna within the golden pot represents our new life which comes from Jesus Christ. The life available through Jesus, who is the “the living bread which came down from heaven,” is only available to those who are overcoming. To those who are continuing to believe in Jesus as the Son of God, living by faith in that blessed assurance, will experience and know Jesus Himself. They will be given Jesus Himself to eat. This was formerly a mystery. This manna was hidden, it was within the golden pot behind the veil, which only the high priest saw once a year. But now, havingboldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, by a new a living way, which He hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, His flesh,” we can experience His life right now in a way that was not known previously. And when we get to heaven, again we will be able to experience Jesus in a way that is not accessible currently – but when we receive new bodies and dwell with Jesus eternally as His bride, we will be given even more of that hidden manna.
      • “Howbeit we speak wisdom among them that are perfect: yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of the princes of this world, that come to nought: But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory: Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him. But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God.” [1 Cor 2:6-11]
    • was “that they may see the bread wherewith I have fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt.”
  • And will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name having been written, which no man has perceived saving he that is laying hold of it

CONCLUSION

The Lord Jesus offers us deep intimacy with Himself for eternity spiritually, physically, and emotionally. He is our beloved Groom, our God, The Husband of The Church, and He alone deserves our intimacy. We ought therefore to hold firmly to sound doctrine, gleaned from study, which glorifies Jesus and creates even more affection/devotion toward Him.

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PARABLE

The parable of the mustard seed relates to this letter. [Mt13:31-32, Mk 4:30-32, Lk 13:19]

  1. The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field:
    • Verse 13I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan’s throne is: and thou continue to seize hold of My Name, and hast not refused to identify with My faith, even in the days Antipas, the witness of me, the faithful one of me, who was slain in the presence of you, where Satan dwelleth
    • Which indeed is the least of all seeds: but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof.
      • Verse 14-15 But I have a few things against thee, because thou hast there them that are holding fast to the doctrine of Balaam, who had been teaching Balac to cast a stumblingblock before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit fornication. So hast thou also them that are holding fast to the doctrine of the Nicolaitanes, which thing I hate.
        • Birds mean devils.
        • The church has become corrupted with devils and demons, with false doctrine.

CULTURAL RELEVANCE
  1. These things saith He which hath the sharp sword with two edges.
    • “Rome stationed the regional ruler of Asia, the proconsul, in Pergamum. The proconsul of Asia possessed unlimited imperium—which included ius gladii, or “the right of the sword.” When an emperor permitted a governor to wear a sword, the Roman proconsul could execute anyone who disobeyed his orders (Tacitus, Histories, 3.68; Dio Cassius, Roman History, 53.13.6-7 & 53.14.5). This deadly and powerful “right of the sword” commanded the obedience of Pergamene citizens. Capital punishment cases did not have to be referred to Rome. The proconsul in Pergamum decided who lived and who died.” [http://www.reenactingtheway.com/blog/why-jesus-shows-off-his-sword-in-revelation-2]
      • Jesus is trying to tell us that the Roman government at Pergamos is not who decides who lives and who dies. Jesus Christ is the eternal God who has been given all judgment by The Father. Jesus decides who dies and who lives in eternity with Him. Likewise, this world today does not decide morality. Jesus Christ and His sharp, two-edged Word decides what is right and what is wrong.
  2. I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan’s throne is.
    • In Pergamos, there was intense worship of Aesculapius or Asclepius as savior. They viewed this god as a healer and preserver. Asclepius was a god of healing and health. He had an impressive temple, the ruins of which can be visited in Pergamos today. One animal is especially associated with Asclepius: the snake. Asclepius’ symbol is a serpent-entwined staff (still used in the medical world today). At the dedication of temples to Asclepius, snakes would be encouraged to enter the building. Doubtless, such a ceremony took place in Pergamos too. In honour of Asclepius, a particular type of non-venomous snake was often used in healing rituals. These were called “Asclepian snakes.” They slithered around freely on the floor in dormitories where the sick and injured slept.
  3. To him that overcometh…will [I] give him a white stone.
    • “During the time in which John wrote, a white stone was used in social life and judicial customs. Days of great festivals were noted by a white stone, days of great calamity were noted by a black stone. If a host had a special guest whom he greatly appreciated, the guest was given a white stone with a name or message written on it, directed only to the guest–not to be shared by any other.” (The Revelation Verse by Verse Study, Dr. Oliver B. Greene)
      • Jesus is saying that He is the one who grants admittance to the Kingdom, to the most important event anyone could partake in. Jesus is the one who gives us admittance, who truly appreciates us.

PROPHETIC

The Church at Smyrna is prophetic of the 4th and 5th century church.

  1. In 313, Emperor Constantine I’s Edict of Milan legalized Christianity, and in 330 Constantine moved the imperial capital to Constantinople, modern Istanbul, Turkey. In 380 the Edict of Thessalonica made Nicene Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire, a position that within the diminishing territory of the Byzantine Empire would persist until the empire itself ended in the fall of Constantinople in 1453, while elsewhere the church was independent of the empire, as became particularly clear with the East–West Schism. During the period of the Seven Ecumenical Councils, five primary sees emerged, an arrangement formalized in the mid-6th century by Emperor Justinian I as the pentarchy of Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem and Alexandria. In 451 the Council of Chalcedon, in a canon of disputed validity, elevated the see of Constantinople to a position “second in eminence and power to the bishop of Rome.” From c. 350 to c. 500, the bishops, or popes, of Rome, steadily increased in authority through their consistent intervening in support of orthodox leaders in theological disputes, which encouraged appeals to them. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholic_Church#Age_of_discovery]
  2. This is when Christianity was declared the official religion of Rome, when the church married the world. [Missler]
    • Paganism and Babylonian doctrines were weaved into Christianity. Satan infiltrated and inflated the church, and its effects continue today.
    • 312 A.D
      • Constantine converted to Christianity and made it the official religion, along with ceasing gladiatorial fights, reduced abortions, abolished crucifixion, replaced the edicts of Diocletian, assumed headship of the church, advanced Christians to high offices, and made Sunday the official day of worship.
    • 361-363 A.D
      • Julain, “The Apostate,” sought to restore paganism.
    • 363-364 A.D
      • Jovian reestablished the Christianity
    • 378-395 A.D
      • Theodosius made Christianity the state religion, forced conversions and filled the churches with people who really weren’t saved. Ambition to rule, heathenism, and pomp emerge in the world church.
    • Heathenism was Christianized, pagan temples were converted to Christian churches, heathen festivals were converted to Christian ones, pagan priests slipped into offices as Christian priests.
  3. This is when Catholicism started and the hierarchies that Jesus hated were created.

ACCOMPANYING EPISTLE

The epistles of 1 & 2 Corinthians correspond to this letter from Jesus to Pergamos.

  1. Fornication in the Corinthian church
    • Problem: “It is reported commonly that there is fornication among you, and such fornication as is not so much as named among the Gentiles, that one should have his father’s wife. And ye are puffed up, and have not rather mourned, that he that hath done this deed might be taken away from among you.” [1 Cor 5:1-2]
      • Solution: “To deliver such an one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. Your glorying is not good. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump?” [1 Cor 5:5-6]
    • Warning: “Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God. And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.” [1 Cor 6:9-11]
    • Instruction: “…Now the body is not for fornication, but for the Lord; and The Lord for the body.” [1 Cor 6:13]
      • Solution: “Flee fornication. Every sin that a man doeth is without the body; but he that committeth fornication sinneth against his own body. What? know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own? For ye are bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God’s.” [1 Cor 6:18-20]
      • Solution: “…It is good for a man not to touch a woman. Nevertheless, to avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband.” [1 Cor 7:1-2]
    • Warning: “Neither let us commit fornication, as some of them committed, and fell in one day three and twenty thousand.” [1 Cor 10:8]
      • Solution: “Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall. There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it.” [1 Cor 10:12-13]
  2. Idolatry/Eating thing sacrificed to idols in the Corinthian church
    • Warning: “Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God. And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.” [1 Cor 6:9-11]
    • Problem: “As concerning therefore the eating of those things that are offered in sacrifice unto idols, we know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is none other God but one. For though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, (as there be gods many, and lords many,) But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him. Howbeit there is not in every man that knowledge: for some with conscience of the idol unto this hour eat it as a thing offered unto an idol; and their conscience being weak is defiled.” [1 Cor 8:4-7]
      • Solution: “But take heed lest by any means this liberty of your’s become a stumblingblock to them that are weak. For if any man see thee which hast knowledge sit at meat in the idol’s temple, shall not the conscience of him which is weak be emboldened to eat those things which are offered to idols; And through thy knowledge shall the weak brother perish, for whom Christ died? But when ye sin so against the brethren, and wound their weak conscience, ye sin against Christ. Wherefore, if meat make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh while the world standeth, lest I make my brother to offend.” [1 Cor 8:9-13]
    • Warning: “Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord’s table, and of the table of devils.” [1 Cor 10:21]
    • Instruction: “Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, that eat, asking no question for conscience sake: For the earth is the Lord’s, and the fulness thereof. If any of them that believe not bid you to a feast, and ye be disposed to go; whatsoever is set before you, eat, asking no question for conscience sake. But if any man say unto you, This is offered in sacrifice unto idols, eat not for his sake that shewed it, and for conscience sake: for the earth is the Lord’s, and the fulness thereof: Conscience, I say, not thine own, but of the other: for why is my liberty judged of another man’s conscience? For if I by grace be a partaker, why am I evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks? Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God. Give none offence, neither to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God: Even as I please all men in all things, not seeking mine own profit, but the profit of many, that they may be saved.” [1 Cor 10:25-33]

One thought on “The Revelation of Jesus Christ Pt 8, 2:12-17

  1. Pingback: Notes on Seven Church Letters of Revelation – Bright And Morning Star

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